The Sukhoi Superjet 100 (Russian: Сухой Суперджет 100) is a modern, fly-by-wire regional jet in the 75- to 95-seat category. With development starting in 2000, the airliner was designed by the civil aircraft division of the Russian aerospace company Sukhoi in co-operation with its main partner Boeing. Its maiden flight was conducted on 19 May 2008. On 21 April 2011, the Superjet 100 undertook its first commercial passenger flight, on the Armavia route from Yerevan to Moscow.
Designed to compete internationally with its An-148, Embraer and Bombardier counterparts, the Superjet 100 claims substantially lower operating costs, at a lower purchase price of $35 million.
The final assembly of the Superjet 100 is done by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association. Its SaM-146 engines are designed and produced by the French-Russian PowerJet joint venture and the aircraft is marketed internationally by the Italian-Russian SuperJet International joint venture.
|An Aeroflot Sukhoi Superjet|
|Role||Regional jet airliner|
|Manufacturer||Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association|
|Designer||Sukhoi Civil Aircraft|
|First flight||19 May 2008|
|Introduction||21 April 2011 with Armavia|
|Status||In production, in service|
|Number built||25 ( Apr. 2013 )|
|Program cost||US$1.4 billion|
Yaroslavl Oblast Governor Sergey Vakhrukov (left) and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin (center) inspecting Superjet 100 engine production at NPO Saturn on 2 December 2008. To the right is General Director of the company, Yuri Lastochkin.
Development of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 began in 2000. On 19 December 2002, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and Boeing signed a medium-term Cooperation Agreement to work together on the design. Boeing consultants had already been advising Sukhoi on marketing, design, certification, manufacturing, program management and aftersales support for a year. On 10 October 2003, the technical board of the project selected the suppliers of major subsystems. The project officially passed its third stage of development on 12 March 2004, meaning that Sukhoi could now start selling the Superjet 100 to customers. On 13 November 2004, the Superjet 100 passed the fourth stage of development, implying that the Superjet 100 was now ready for commencing of prototype production.In August 2005, a contract between the Russian government and Sukhoi was signed. Under the agreement, the Superjet 100 project would receive 7.9 billion rubles of research and development financing under the Federal Program titled Development of Civil Aviation in Russia in 2005–2009.
On 28 January 2007, the first SSJ was transported by an Antonov 124 from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to the city of Zhukovsky near Moscow for ground tests at Zhukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute. A representative of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft announced on 13 November 2007, the completion of static tests necessary for conducting the first flight. The Superjet was unveiled at its official rollout at Komsomolsk-on-Amur Dzemgi Airport on 26 September 2007.
In February 2008, initial test runs of the SaM146 engine were successful. An Ilyushin Il-76 testbed, operated by the Gromov Flight Research Institute, was also used in the engine testing. On 19 May 2008, the first test flight of the Superjet took place from Dzemgi airport, at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association.
Superjet 100 prototype on its maiden flight, 19 May 2008.
On July 2008, testing continued successfully. By October 2008, the first stage of Sukhoi Superjet 100's factory-based flight testing program was successfully completed. The second SSJ100 prototype had also been flown and the certification process was started. In December 2008, the second of four SSJ100 prototypes SN95003 took to the skies. The aircraft performed standard stability and handling quality tests as well as systems checks in accordance with the first flight assignment. Flight test engineers and pilots were pleased with the overall performance of the second prototype.
The deliveries were first scheduled to begin in late 2008, and Sukhoi predicted that 3 units of all variations of the Superjet 100 would be delivered by the end of 2016. On 7 July 2008, Sukhoi officially confirmed that the original schedule was too optimistic, and first deliveries would begin in December 2009.
As of January 2009, the first two aircraft had completed over 80 flights, totaling around 2,300 hours in flight and ground tests. On 1 April 2009, two Superjet 100 prototypes, 95001 and 95003, successfully completed the first long-distance flight for this aircraft, covering a distance of 3,000 kilometers from Novosibirsk to Moscow. On 17 April 2009, EASA pilots performed the first test flights on the two prototypes. According to EASA pilot feedback, the aircraft was easy to fly. On 26 July 2009, the third of four SSJ100 prototypes (SN95004) flew.
At the Paris Air Show 2009, Malév Hungarian Airlines said that it would purchase 30 Superjets worth $1 billion, providing a welcome boost to sales as it made its international debut at the 2009 Paris Air Show.
As of June 2009, 13 aircraft were under construction with the first four scheduled to be handed over to clients by the end of 2010. After 2012, the company will build 70 Superjets per year. Armenian Armavia would receive the first two aircraft, followed by Aeroflot, which has ordered a total of 30 aircraft with an option for 15 more. Other customers include Russia's Avialeasing company, Swiss Ama Asset Management Advisor and Indonesian Kartika Airlines.
On 29 December 2009, United Aircraft Corporation head Alexei Fyodorov said that deliveries of the Superjet 100 have been indefinitely delayed because the engines were not ready. On 4 February 2010, the fourth prototype SSJ flew. Owing to delays in production of the engines, including quality problems at the NPO Saturn factory, it used the engines removed from the first prototype. On 28 May 2010, all engine tests necessary for certification were completed. The final trial was a simulation of an encounter with a flock of birds.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 at Tolmachevo (Novosibirsk) airport during test flights.
On 6 July 2010, Deputy Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov, who heads the commission to monitor the implementation of the Sukhoi Superjet program, wrote to Industry and Trade Minister Viktor Khristenko about the progress of the aircraft's certification in early June. Data from 28 May 2010 showed that the certification process was getting behind schedule with most of the problems related to the SaM146 engine, developed by PowerJet, which is a joint project between the Russian Saturn and the French Snecma. Work on its final design had been almost completed and certification was more than 90 percent completed, but problems remain, noted Manturov.
In September 2010, the CEO of SuperJet International said that certification was expected in November 2010. In October 2010, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SN95004) passed noise testing carried out under the auspices of Russian and European certification authorities (AR IAC and EASA respectively). On 4 November 2010, the first production Superjet (SN95007) intended for Armavia was test flown.
Superjet 100 at 2010 Farnborough Air Show.
On 21 December 2010, Superjet 100 passed emergency evacuation and interrupted takeoff tests at Ramenskoye Airport near Zhukovsky, near Moscow, under the supervision of the Interstate Aviation Committee Aviation Register (AR IAC) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The first test required 98 volunteers of different age groups and five crew members to evacuate the aircraft in 90 seconds during an emergency landing. They made it in 73 seconds. The interrupted takeoff test probed the wheels, tires and brakes at maximum possible braking speed. In full compliance with the certification requirements, the test was performed without a thrust reverser. The aircraft loaded to its maximum takeoff weight (45,880 kg) performed emergency braking at a speed of over 300 km/h and came to a stop after running 700 meters, within the required parameters.
On 3 February 2011, the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC IR) granted a Type Certificate for Sukhoi Superjet 100.The Type Certificate confirms compliance of the SSJ100 with the airworthiness regulations and it authorizes the commercial operation of the airliner.
On 3 February 2012, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) issued Type Certificate A-176 for the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (model RRJ-95B), confirming that the aircraft complies with the EASA airworthiness and environmental requirements. The certification also makes it possible for airlines operating in countries using EASA rules to accept and operate the aircraft. The extensive validation program included several dedicated flight and ground tests.
In the Russian domestic market, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ) is intended to replace the aging Tupolev Tu-134 and Yakovlev Yak-42 aircraft. Internationally, the new Superjet 100 will compete against the Embraer E-Jets and the Bombardier CRJ programs. The SSJ aims for lower operating costs than its competitors for the price of $23–25 million. According to Sukhoi, ongoing certification tests are confirming that the aircraft's direct operating costs are 6–8% lower than those of its key competitor, the Embraer 190/195. In terms of total fuel burn per sector, the SSJ is on a par with the Antonov An-148 but can accommodate 22 more passengers.
The aircraft's design meets the specific requirements of airlines in Russia, the CIS, the USA and the EU, and conforms to the Aviation Rules AP-25, FAR-25, JAR-25 requirements and to the ground noise level requirements under ICAO Chapter 4 and FAR 36 Section 4 standards entering into force during 2006. From the beginning, the SSJ has been designed to meet all Western aviation standards.
The Superjet uses PowerJet SaM146 turbofan engines developed by PowerJet that provide 13,500 to 17,500 pounds-force (60 to 78 kN) of thrust. The noise and emissions levels satisfy the existing ICAO requirements.
The Superjet 100 has been described as the most important and successful civil aircraft program of the Russian aerospace industry. It enjoys considerable support from the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade, which regards it as a top priority project. Excluding the SaM146 engine, development of the Superjet 100 cost about $1.4 billion, with 25% of this amount funded from the federal budget. The Superjet 100 is the first new civil non-amphibious jet aircraft developed in post-Soviet Russia.
Over 30 foreign partnership companies are involved in the project. Development, manufacturing and marketing of the aircraft's SaM146 jet engine is being done by the PowerJet company, a joint-venture between the French Snecma and Russia's NPO Saturn. SuperJet International, a joint venture between Alenia Aermacchi and Sukhoi is responsible for marketing in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Japan and Oceania.
The assembly line for all versions of the Superjet is located in the facilities of Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO) in the Russian Far East, while Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO) focuses on component production. The two companies have been heavily investing in upgrading of their facilities and are expected to produce 70 airframes by 2012.
List of companies
- Project leader: United Aircraft Corporation
- Strategic partner: Alenia Aermacchi
- Risk-sharing partner: Snecma
- Main designer: Sukhoi
- Consultant: Boeing
- Aircraft Main System Suppliers: Thales (avionics), Liebherr (with Teploobmennik OJSC and PMZ Voskhod JSC) (Flight Control Systems), Messier-Dowty (landing gear), Intertechnique (Zodiac) (fuel system), BE Aerospace (interior), Curtiss-Wright Controls (fire protection system), Honeywell (APU), IPECO (crew seats), Parker Hannifin (hydraulic system), Hamilton Sundstrand (electrical system), Meggitt Vibro-Meter (engine vibration sensor), Saint-Gobain Sully (windows), Aircelle (Nacelles and Thrust Reverser), SAMCO (Passenger and Cargo doors), Goodrich Corporation, Aircelle (engine nacelle).
- Engines: PowerJet (NPO Saturn and Snecma)
- Mass production: KnAAPO, NAPO
The first production Sukhoi Superjet was delivered to Armavia on 19 April 2011. The handover ceremony was held at Zvartnots International Airport in Yerevan on the same day. The aircraft was named "Yuri Gagarin", after the first man to venture into space almost exactly 50 years before. Armavia planned to operate its Superjet 100 on flights between Yerevan, Sochi and Ukrainian cities, including Odessa and Simferopol. The airline had expected to receive its second Superjet in June 2011.
On December 16, 2012, Mikhail Baghdasarov, owner of Armavia, stated that both of its ordered airplanes had been returned to Sukhoi Civil Aircraft company. He was also quoted as saying "that the SSJ-100 is not operated by the company anymore, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft has possession of the jet, and Armavia had υπευθυνη δηλωση decided not to receive any aircraft."
Entry into service
On 21 April 2011, the first commercial flight of Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SN 95007) by Armavia airline landed at Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow at 4.45 am MSK (00.45 GMT), carrying 90 passengers from Zvartnots International Airport, Yerevan. The flight took about 2 hours and 55 minutes.
Armavia used the Airbus A319 on its Yerevan to Moscow (SVO) route and had a plan to switch to the Superjet 100. In August 2012 Armavia announced that they had returned both of its SSJ-100s to the manufacturer.
The president of United Aircraft Corporation and general director of Sukhoi Mikhail Pogosyan hailed the event as a key milestone for the Superjet 100 project, saying that it opened "a new stage of the program — the beginning of commercial operation and full-scale serial production."
The aircraft was put into commercial operation within an unprecedented short time after delivery. For the first week of service the SSJ-100 accumulated 24 flights, flying to Moscow, Athens, Donetsk, Aleppo, Tehran, Tel Aviv and Astrakhan. On 1 May, the Superjet made its first regular flight to Venice (2800 km, approx 3:45-minute flight).
In March 2012, the deputy chief engineer of the Department of Aviation and Technical Support of "Aeroflot" Constantine Mohniit revealed in the Russian daily newspaper Vedomosti, that Aeroflot is asking Sukhoi for compensation since the six Superjet 100s it operates are in the air only 3.9 hours/day on average instead of the standard 8 to 9 hours. Breakdowns "... were caused by failures due to technical problems and delayed delivery of parts."
The three variants were originally called the RRJ-60, RRJ-75 and RRJ-95, with the numbers designating the average passenger capacity of each type. However, with the renaming of the project to Superjet 100, the RRJ-75 was re-labelled the Superjet 100–75 (or SSJ-75 for short), while the RRJ-95 became known as the SSJ 100–95. The smallest variant, called the SSJ 100–60, was temporarily postponed, and efforts are currently concentrating on the largest variant, with the smaller SSJ 100–75 to follow later. Longer variants based on extended fuselages, called the SSJ 100–110 and the SSJ 100–130, are also planned, as well as business, VIP and cargo variants.
|SSJ 100–75||SSJ 100-75LR||SSJ 100–95||SSJ 100-95LR|
|Seating capacity||83 (1-class, dense)
78 (1-class, standard)
68 (2-class, standard)
|103 (1-class, dense)
98 (1-class, standard)
86 (2-class, standard)
|Seat pitch||30 in (1-class, dense), 32 in (1-class, standard)
36 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
|31 in (1-class, dense), 32 in (1-class, standard)
36 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
|Length||26.44 m (86 ft 9 in)||29.94 m (98 ft 3 in)|
|Wingspan||27.80 m (91 ft 2 in)|
|Height||10.28 m (33 ft 9 in)|
|Fuselage max diameter||3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)|
|Cabin width||3.236 m (127.4 in)|
|Cabin height||2.12 m (6 ft 11 in)|
|Aisle width||51 cm (20 in)|
|Seat width||46.5 cm (18.3 in)|
|Volume bins per passenger||0.07 m3 (2.5 cu ft)|
|Maximum take-off weight (MTOW)||38,820 kg (85,600 lb)||42,280 kg (93,200 lb)||45,880 kg (101,100 lb)||49,450 kg (109,000 lb)|
|Empty weight (OEW)||–||–||25,100 kg (55,000 lb)||–|
|DOW||–||–||26,600 kg (59,000 lb)||–|
|Maximum landing weight||35,000 kg (77,000 lb)||41,000 kg (90,000 lb)|
|Maximum payload||9,130 kg (20,100 lb)||12,245 kg (27,000 lb)|
|Maximum fuel capacity||13,135 L (10,600 kg or 23,370 lb)||13,135 L (10,600 kg or 23,370 lb)|
|Cargo capacity||15.01 m3 (530 cu ft)||21.97 m3 (776 cu ft)|
|Takeoff run at MTOW||1,515 m (4,970 ft)||1,731 m (5,679 ft)||2,052 m (6,732 ft)|
|Maximum flight altitude||12,500 m (41,000 ft)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h/511 mph / 448knots at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)|
|Maximum cruise speed||Mach 0.81 (870 km/h/ 541 mph / 469knots at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)|
|Range (full passenger payload)||2,900 km (1,800 mi)||4,550 km (2,830 mi)||3,048 km (1,894 mi)||4,578 km (2,845 mi)|
|Engine (x 2)||PowerJet SaM146|
|Takeoff thrust (x 2)||13,500 lbf (60 kN)||15,400 lbf (69 kN)|
|APR thrust (x 2)||15,400 lbf (69 kN)||17,500 lbf (78 kN)|
|Fan tip diameter||1.22 m (48 in)|
|Engine length||2.07 m (81 in)|
Accidents and incidents
On 9 May 2012, a Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 airliner on a demonstration flight with 37 passengers and eight Russian crew members on board crashed after it took off from the Halim Perdanakusuma Airport in Jakarta, Indonesia. About twenty minutes after the take-off, the crew requested permission to descend to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), which was granted. This was the last contact that Air Traffic Control had with the aircraft, which was then about 139 kilometres (75 nmi) south of Jakarta, in the vicinity of 2,211 metres (7,254 ft) high Mount Salak, a mountain higher than the requested flight level. After an extensive search, rescuers concluded, based on the widespread debris field on the side of a ridge, that the aircraft directly struck the rocky side of Mount Salak and there was "no chance of survival".
An official inquiry into the crash found that the plane's automatic collision avoidance system was working but had been ignored by the pilot who was possibly distracted by his conversation with a potential customer for the aircraft.