The British Aerospace Jetstream is a small twin-turboprop airliner, with a pressurised fuselage, developed as the Jetstream 31 from the earlier Handley Page Jetstream.
||28 March 1980
||29 June 1982
||Royal Navy 2011
||Active service Not in production
Royal Saudi Air Force
||Handley Page Jetstream
||BAe Jetstream 41
Scottish Aviation had taken over production of the original Jetstream design from Handley Page and when it was nationalised along with other British companies into British Aerospace (now BAE Systems) in 1978, BAe decided the design was worth further development, and started work on a "Mark 3" Jetstream. As with the earlier 3M version for the USAF, the new version was re-engined with newer Garrett turboprops which offered more power (flat rated to 1,020 shp/760 kW with a thermodynamic limit of 1,100 shp/820 kW) and longer overhaul intervals over the original Turbomeca units. This allowed the aircraft to be offered in an 18-seat option (six rows, 2+1), with an offset aisle, and with a water methanol option for the engine to allow the ability to operate at maximum load from a greater range of airfields, particularly in the continental United States and Australia.
The result was the Jetstream 31, which first flew on 28 March 1980, being certificated in the UK on 29 June 1982. The new version proved to be as popular as Handley Page hoped the original model would be, and several hundred 31s were built during the 1980s. In 1985, a further engine upgrade was planned, which flew in 1988 as the Jetstream Super 31, also known as the Jetstream 32. Production continued until 1993, by which time 386 31/32s had been produced. Four Jetstream 31s were ordered for the Royal Navy in 1985 as radar observer trainers, the Jetstream T.3, but were later used for VIP transport.
In 1993, British Aerospace adopted the Jetstream name as their brand name for all twin turboprop aircraft. As well as the Jetstream 31 and Jetstream 32, it also built the related Jetstream 41 and the unrelated, but co-branded BAe ATP/Jetstream 61. The Jetstream 61 never entered service, and retained its "ATP" marketing name.
In December 2008, a total of 128 BAe Jetstream 31 and 32 aircraft remained in airline service. Major operators include: Pascan Aviation (13), Direktflyg (7), Vincent Aviation (4), Jet Air (4), Blue Islands (4), Sun Air of Scandinavia (3), and AIS Airlines (3). Some 40 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the types.
In July 2008, a BAE Systems team that included Cranfield Aerospace and the National Flight Laboratory Centre at Cranfield University achieved a major breakthrough in unmanned air systems technology. The team flew a series of missions, totalling 800 mi (1,290 km), in a specially modified Jetstream 31 (G-BWWW) without any human intervention, This was the first time such an undertaking had been achieved.
Other Jetstream versions
- Jetstream 31 Airliner : 18/19 passenger commuter airliner.
- Jetstream 31 Corporate : 8/10 passenger executive transport aircraft.
- Jetstream 31EP : Enhanced performance.
- Jetstream 31EZ : EEZ or maritime patrol version.
- Jetstream Executive Shuttle : 12-seat executive transport aircraft.
- Jetstream 31 Special : Utility transport aircraft.
- Jetstream 32EP : Enhanced performance, 19 People.
- Jetstream QC (Quick Change) :
- Jetstream 41 : 29 passenger aircraft.
Jetstream 31 operated by Cranfield University at Filton Airfield in 2005
Jetstream 32 operated by Sun Air of Scandinavia in British Airways livery
Skywest Airlines J31 at Perth Airport (early 1990s).
Accident and incidents
- On 26 December 1989, United Express Flight 2415 operated by N410UE of North Pacific Airlines crashed short of the runway at Tri-Cities Airport, Washington, USA. The crew executed an excessively steep and unstabilized ILS approach. That approach, along with improper air traffic control commands and aircraft icing, caused the aircraft to stall. Both crew members and all four passengers were killed.
- On 12 March 1992, a deadheading USAir Express Jetstream 31 crashed on landing at McGhee Tyson Airport near Knoxville, Tennessee after the pilot failed to lower the landing gear. There were no passengers aboard, however the 2 crew members were killed.
- On 1 December 1993, Northwest Airlink Flight 5719 had a controlled flight into terrain killing all crew and passengers.
- On 13 December 1994, Flagship Airlines Flight 3379 stalled and crashed after the captain's improper assumption that an engine had failed and subsequent failure to follow approved procedures for engine failure single-engine approach and go-around, and stall recovery while on approach to Raleigh-Durham International Airport killing 13 of the 20 passengers and both crewmembers.
- On 12 May 2000, an East Coast Aviation Services Jetstream (N16EJ) crashed into terrain on the flight second approach into Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Airport killing all 19 passengers and crew on the aircraft.
- On 8 July 2000, Aerocaribe Flight 7831 crashed into a mountainous area as the aircraft was on approach into Carlos Rovirosa Pérez International Airport and killed all 19 passengers and crew.
- On 19 October 2004, Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 crashed on approach to Kirksville Regional Airport killing 13 out of 15 passengers and crew.
- On 18 November 2004, Venezolana Flight 213 crashed into a fire station on landing at Simón Bolívar International Airport (Venezuela) after a flight from Juan Pablo Perez Alfonso Airport. Four passengers were killed out of 21 passengers and crew on the flight.
- On 3 October 2006, an Eastern Airways Jetstream 3202 performed a go around after contacting the runway at Wick Airport. The crew elected to divert to Aberdeen Airport unaware of any contact with the runway. The aircraft pod scraped the runway three times and the prop struck the runway 87 times before the aircraft managed to go around and divert to Aberdeen. No-one was injured in the incident.
- On 8 February 2008, Eagle Airways Flight 2279 was hijacked by a passenger over New Zealand just after taking off from Woodbourne Airport. The copilot managed to restrain the hijacker eventually and landed safely at Christchurch International Airport the two pilots were injured and one passengers was also injured in the hijacking.
- On 8 March 2012, BAe Jetstream 3102 G-CCPW of Links Air, operating Manx2 Flight 302 from Leeds-Bradford Airport, United Kingdom to Ronaldsway Airport, Isle of Man, departed the runway on landing at Ronaldsway. The aircraft was substantially damaged when the starboard undercarriage collapsed. There were no injuries amongst the twelve passengers and two crew.
Specifications (Jetstream 31)
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1988–1989
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 19 passengers
- Length: 47 ft 1¾ in (14.37 m)
- Wingspan: 52 ft 0 in (15.85 m)
- Height: 17 ft 5½ in (5.32 m)
- Wing area: 271 ft² (25.2 m²)
- Airfoil: NACA 63A418 at root, NACA 63A412 at tip
- Empty weight: 9,613 lb (4,360 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 15,332 lb (6,950 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Garrett TPE331-10UG turboprop, 940 shp (701 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 263 kn (303 mph, 488 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 230 kn (264 mph, 426 km/h)
- Stall speed: 86 kn (99 mph, 159 km/h)
- Range: 680 nmi (783 mi, 1,260 km)
- Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
- Rate of climb: 2,080 ft/min (10.6 m/s)
- Wing loading: 56.6 lb/ft² (276 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0.123 hp/lb (0.201 kW/kg)